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Mark Twain (10.12. (28.11. O.S.) 1821 - 08.01.1878 (28.12. 1877. O.S.) - Russian poet.

Nekrasov photo/   Nekrasov was born the son of a petty Russian officer and a Polish gentrywoman. He grew up on his father's estate, Greshnevo, Yaroslavl province, near the banks of the Volga River, where he observed the hard labor of the Russian barge haulers. This image of social injustice, so similar to Dostoevsky's childhood recollection of a beaten-upon courier, was compounded by the behavior of his tyranical father. The latter's drunken rages against both his peasants and his wife determined the subject matter of Nekrasov's major poemsa verse portrayal of the plight of the Russian peasant, using his language and ideas.

Nekrasov was a poor student, reaching only the fifth grade at his local gymnasium. In 1838 his father, bent on a military career for his son, sent the 16-year-old Nekrasov to Petersburg for officer training. He quickly lost interest in the military academy and came in contact with students there, including a friend from his school days. He was encouraged to study for the university entrance exams. Though failing to score high enough be admitted as a full time student, he was able to audit classes, which he did from 1839 to 1841. Having quit the army in favor of his studies, Nekrasov's father stopped sending him money, and Nekrasov lived in extreme want, briefly living in a homeless shelter. Shortly thereafter Nekrasov authored his first collection of poetry, Dreams and Sounds, published under the name "N. N.". Though the poet V. A. Zhukovsky expressed a favorable opinion of the beginner's work, it was promptly dismissed as Romantic doggerel by V. G. Belinsky, the most important Russian literary critic of the first half of 19th century, in (Notes of the Fatherland). Nekrasov personally went to the booksellers and removed all the copies of the failed collection.

Ironically, Nekrasov joined the staff of NoF with Belinsky in the early 1840's and became close friends with the critic. From 1843-46 Nekrasov edited various anthologies for the journal, one of which, "A Petersburg Collection," included Dostoevsky's first novel, Poor Folk. At the end of 1846, Nekrasov acquired The Contemporary from Pyotr Pletnev. Much of the staff of NoF, including Belinksy, abandoned Pyotr Krayevsky's journal for Nekrasov's. Before his death, Belinsky granted Nekrasov rights to publish various articles and other material originally planned for an almanac, to be called the Leviathan.

Together with Stanitsky, Nekrasov published two very long picaresque novels: Three Countries of the World and Dead Lake.

By the middle of the 1850's Nekrasov had become seriously ill. He left Russia for Italy to recover. It was around this time that Chernyshevsky and Nikolai Dobrolyubov, two of the most radical and unabashedly revolutionary writers of the time, became the major critics for the journal. Nekrasov was attacked by his old friends for allowing his journal to become the vehicle for Chernyshevsky's sloppy and often poorly written broadside attacks on polite Russian society. By 1860 I. S. Turgenev, the naysayer of nihilism, refused to have any more of his work published in the journal.

After the closure of the Contemporary in 1866, Nekrasov obtained from his old enemy Kraevsky ownership of NoF. He achieved new success with the journal.

In 1877 Nekrasov, never very healthy, became ill for the last time. He then composed his Last Songs, filled with the agony of the shrivelled and now dying poet.

Tomb of Nikolay Nekrasov at the Novodevichy Cemetery (Saint Petersburg).Despite biting frost, his funeral was attended by many. Dostoevsky gave the keynote eulogy, noting that Nekrasov was the greatest Russian poet since Pushkin and Lermontov. A section of the crowd, youthful followers of Chernyshevsky who connected the verse of the deceased poet with the revolutionary cause chanted "No, greater!"

Who is Happy in Russia?

Nekrasov's most important work was (Who is Happy in Russia?) (1873-1876). It tells the story of seven peasants who set out to ask various elements of the rural population if they are happy, to which the answer is never satisfactory. The poem is noted for its rhyme scheme: "several unrhymed iambic tetrameters ending in a pyrrhic are succeeded by a clausule in iambic trimeter" (Terras 319). This scheme resembles Russian folk song.



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