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Ivan Turgenev (28.10. [09.11. O.S.] 1818 - 22.08. [03.09. O.S.] 1883) - Russian writer.

 / Ivan TurgenevIvan Sergeyevich Turgenev was born on 9 November 1818 in Oryol, Russia, into a wealthy family. His father was a colonel in the Imperial Russian cavalry and his mother was a rich heiress. She experienced severe hardships as a child and was unhappy in her marriage. It is also known that Turgenevs father was a dangler. When Ivan was 16 his father died. Consequently Ivan and his brother were brought up by their cruel mother. In the childhood Turgenev was always afraid of his mother because she often beat him.

When Turgenev finished school he entered the University of Moscow. After studying for one year at the University of Moscow, Turgenev began to study at the University of Saint Petersburg. Between 1834 and 1837 he studied there and was interested in Russian literature, Classics and philology. From 1838 to 1841 he studied at the University of Berlin where he focused on history and philosophy. Ivan Turgenev completed his masters examination in Saint-Petersburg. German society impressed him and he considered that the ideas from the Age of Enlightenment could improve his native country. Turgenev himself and many of his contemporaries were against serfdom. From 1841 he began his career in Russian civil service. Between 1843 and 1845 Turgenev worked for the Ministry of Interior.

It is known that in the childhood Turgenev listened to a family serf who read the verses from the Rossiad of Mikhail Kheraskov for him. Afterwards Ivans early works in literature gave indications of genius.

Turgenev never married but he was in relationships with his familys serfs. Consequently he had an illegitimate daughter. Her name was Paulinette. Turgenev was broad-shouldered and tall but was shy, discreet and affable. Turgenev lived in different cities including Paris and Baden-Baden because he wanted to be close to the celebrated opera singer Pauline Viardot. He was in relationships with her.

Turgenev became famous when he completed his work A Sportsman's Sketches ( ), also known as Sketches from a Hunter's Album or Notes of a Hunter. This collection is a result of a time which he spent while hunting in the forests. The stories from this collection are based on his observations of nature and peasant life. This work was published in 1852.

When Tsar Nicholas I ruled a country the political situation was difficult for many scientists, writers and artists. At that time a lot of members of the intelligentsia left the country and moved to Europe. One of them was Ivan Turgenev.

In 1852 Turgenev created an obituary for Nikolai Gogol. This work was published and as a result he was put in prison for a month and then exiled to his country estate for 2 years. At that time Turgenev wrote his story Mumu. It appeared in 1854. In the early 1850s Turgenev wrote several novellas: "The Diary of a Superfluous Man (" "), Faust ("") and The Lull (""). From 1853 to 1862 his famous novels Rudin (""), A Nest of the Gentry (" "), On the Eve ("") were completed. His most famous novel Fathers and Sons (" ") was completed in 1862. It should be noted that this work was criticized by many critics unfavourably. During the period of 1862-77 Turgenev wrote Smoke (""), Virgin Soil ("") and other works.

Ivan Turgenev died at Bougival, near Paris in 1883. He was buried in Volkoff Cemetery in St. Petersburg.



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