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Daniel Defoe (1660 - 24.04.1731) - English writer.

Daniel Defoe (nee Daniel Foe) was born around 1659-1660 in Cripplegate, which is near London. He was a prominent English writer, essayist, pamphleteer, trader and spy. He became well-known after his novel Robinson Crusoe. He was also the founder of economic journalism in the UK. His father was a tradesman, but he wanted his son to become a pastor. Thus, he sent Daniel to the seminary in Newington Green. The boy studied classical literature, as well as Latin and Greek there. However, he drew a completely different path - business and trade.

He was rather ambitious by nature and he could afford to buy a real estate or even a ship, but he was often trapped in debts. However, business was not the only interest of Defo. He lived a bright and busy life. He actively participated in political life of England and was one of the rebels against King James II Stuart. For that reason, he had to hide in different cities to avoid jail. In 1684 he married a daughter of a successful merchant. Nobody believed that his marriage with Mary Tuffley would last, but they actually lived together for 50 years and produced eight children.

His literary career began with pamphlets and satirical poems. His first remarkable publication was An Essay upon Projects. In 1701 he wrote a pamphlet The True-Born Englishman, in which he ridiculed the aristocracy. Although he gained incredible popularity, he was sentenced to the pillory and giant fine by the authorities. At that time he also lost his business. His imprisonment could be very long if he wasnt rescued by Robert Harley, who was the speaker of the House of Lords. Since then, the writer became a secret agent who collected all the necessary information in England and Scotland for Harley.

In 1704 he was hired as an editor of articles for the periodical Review. Being a journalist, he found time to write literary works. In 1719 his book The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe was released. This work was included in the treasury of world literature and brought its author instant success. The same year, he wrote The Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, and a year later another sequel story. However, the glory of his first book about Robinson Crusoe was unattainable. Defo died in April, 1731, I London.



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