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2011 . 2 ()

2011 . 2 ().


B2 18 AG. . . .

1. First computers
2. Risky sport
3. Shopping in comfort
4. Difficult task
5. Professional sport
6. Shopping from home
7. New users
8. Digging for the past

A. A group of university students from Brazil have been given the job of discovering and locating all the waterfalls in their country. It is not easy because very often the maps are not detailed. The students have to remain in water for long periods of time. Every day they cover a distance of 35 to 40 kilometers through the jungle, each carrying 40 kilos of equipment.

B. For many years now, mail-order shopping has served the needs of a certain kind of customers. Everything they order from a catalogue is delivered to their door. Now, though, e-mail shopping on the Internet has opened up even more opportunities for this kind of shopping.

C. Another generation of computer fans has arrived. They are neither spotty schoolchildren nor intellectual professors, but pensioners who are learning computing with much enthusiasm. It is particularly interesting for people suffering from arthritis as computers offer a way of writing nice clear letters. Now pensioners have discovered the Internet and at the moment they make up the fastest growing membership.

D. Shopping centres are full of all kinds of stores. They are like small, selfcontained towns where you can find everything you want. In a large centre, shoppers can find everything they need without having to go anywhere else. They can leave their cars in the shopping centre car park and buy everything in a covered complex, protected from the heat, cold or rain.

E. Not many people know that, back in the fifties, computers were very big, and also very slow. They took up complete floors of a building, and were less powerful, and much slower than any of todays compact portable computers. At first, the data they had to process and record was fed in on punched-out paper; later magnetic tape was used, but both systems were completely inconvenient.

F. Potholing is a dull name for a most interesting and adventurous sport. Deep underground, on the tracks of primitive men and strange animals who have adapted to life without light, finding unusual landscapes and underground lakes, the potholer lives an exciting adventure. You mustnt forget, though, that it can be quite dangerous. Without the proper equipment you can fall, get injured or lost.

G. Substantial remains of an octagonal Roman bath house, probably reused as a Christian baptistry, have been uncovered during a student training excavation near Faversham in Kent. The central cold plunge pool was five metres across, and stood within a structure which also had underfloor heating and hot pools, probably originally under a domed roof.


B3 A-F , 1-7. 1-7 . , .

Before the Hubble Space Telescope was launched, scientists thought they knew the universe. They were wrong.

The Hubble Space Telescope has changed many scientists view of the universe. The telescope is named after American astronomer Edwin Hubble, A_______ .

He established that many galaxies exist and developed the first system for their classifications.

In many ways, Hubble is like any other telescope. It simply gathers light.

It is roughly the size of a large school bus. What makes Hubble special is not what it is, B_______ .

Hubble was launched in 1990 from the Discovery space shuttle and it is
about 350 miles above our planet, C_______ .

It is far from the glare of city lights, it doesnt have to look through the air,
D________ .

And what a view it is! Hubble is so powerful it could spot a fly on the moon.

Yet in an average orbit, it uses the same amount of energy as 28 100-watt light bulbs. Hubble pictures require no film. The telescope takes digital images E_______ .

Hubble has snapped photos of storms on Saturn and exploding stars. Hubble doesnt just focus on our solar system. It also peers into our galaxy and beyond. Many Hubble photos show the stars that make up the Milky Way galaxy. A galaxy is a city of stars.

Hubble cannot take pictures of the sun or other very bright objects, because doing so could fry the telescopes instruments, but it can detect infrared and ultra violet light F_______ .

Some of the sights of our solar system that Hubble has glimpsed may even change the number of planets in it.

1. which is above Earths atmosphere.
2. which are transmitted to scientists on Earth.
3. which is invisible to the human eye.
4. who calculated the speed at which galaxies move.
5. so it has a clear view of space.
6. because many stars are in clouds of gas.
7. but where it is.


1521. 1, 2, 3 4, .

The Slobs Holiday

My husband and I went to Reno for our holiday last year. Isnt that place where people go to get a quickie divorce? asked my second son? Yes, I said, trying to look enigmatic and interesting. You are not getting divorced, are you? he asked bluntly. No, I said, we are going to an outdoor pursuit trade fair. The children sighed with relief and slouched away, muttering things like boring. I call them children, but they are all grown up. My eldest son has started to develop fine lines around his eyes fledgling crows feet. A terrible sight for any parent to see. Anyway, the piece isnt about children. Its about holidays.

The first thing to be said about holidays is that anybody who can afford one should be grateful. The second thing is that planning holidays can be hard work. In our household it starts with somebody muttering, I suppose we ought to think about a holiday. This remark is usually made in July and is received glumly, as if the person making it has said I suppose we ought to think about the Bolivian balance of payment problems.

Nothing much happens for a week and then the potential holiday-makers are rounded up and made to consult their diaries. Hospital appointments are taken into consideration, as are important things to do with work. But other highlights on the domestic calendar, such as the cats birthday, are swept aside and eventually two weeks are found. The next decision is the most painful: where?

We travel abroad to work quite a lot but we return tired and weary, so the holiday we are planning is a slobs holiday: collapse on a sunbed, read a book until the sun goes down, stagger back to hotel room, shower, change into glad rags, eat well, wave good-bye to teenagers, have a last drink on hotel terrace, go to bed and then lie awake and wait for hotel waiters to bring the teenagers from the disco.

I never want to be guided around another monument, as long as I live. I do not want to be told how many bricks it took to build it. I have a short attention span for such details. I do not want to attend a folk evening ever, ever again. The kind where men with their trousers tucked into their socks wave handkerchiefs in the direction of women wearing puffsleeved blouses, long skirts and headscarves.

I also want to live dangerously and get brown. I want my doughy English skin change from white sliced to wheat germ. I like the simple pleasure of removing my watch strap and gazing at the patch of virgin skin beneath.

I dont want to make new friends on holidays or in general; I cant manage the ones I have at home. I do not want to mix with the locals and I have no wish to go into their homes. I do not welcome tourists who come to Leicester into my home. Why should the poor locals in Holidayland be expected to? Its bad enough that we monopolize their beaches, clog their pavements and spend an hour in a shop choosing a sunhat that costs the equivalent of 75 pence.

So, the slobs holiday has several essential requirements: a hotel on a sunny beach, good food, a warm sea, nightlife for the teenagers, a big crowd to get lost in, and the absence of mosquitoes.

As I write, we are at the planning stage. We have looked through all the holiday brochures, but they are full of references to hospitable locals, folk nights, deserted beaches, and interesting historical sights. Not our cup of tea, or glass of sangria, at all.

A15 The parents choice of holiday destination made the narrators children feel
1) jealous.
2) excited.
3) alarmed.
4) indifferent.

A16 The narrators words A terrible sight for any parent to see refer to
1) the way children behave.
2) the fact that children are aging.
3) the way children change their image.
4) the fact there is a generation gap.

A17 When the need for holiday planning is first announced in the narrator family, it
1) is regarded as an important political issue.
2) is met with enthusiasm by all the family.
3) seems like an impossible task.
4) is openly ignored.

A18 To find a two-week slot for a holiday potential holiday-makers have to
1) negotiate the optimum period for travel.
2) cancel prior business appointments.
3) re-schedule individual summer plans.
4) make a list of the things to be taken into account.

A19 The slobs holiday is the type of holiday for people, who
1) do not want to go on holiday abroad.
2) go on holiday with teenagers.
3) do not like public life.
4) prefer peaceful relaxing holidays.

A20 When the narrator says I also want to live dangerously, she means
1) getting lost in the crowd.
2) going sightseeing without a guide.
3) choosing herself the parties to go to.
4) lying long hours in the sun on the beach.

A21 The main reason the narrator doesnt want to mix up with locals is because she
1) doesnt let tourists to her house at Leicester.
2) doesnt want to add to their inconveniencies.
3) is afraid to make friends with local people.
4) values her own privacy above all.

2, 3 1521 1! , 2, 3, 1521 .



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